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Configuring and using georouting

Scenario:

You have several servers around the world publishing a website or an application that is accessed by users coming from different countries and geographies.

You want to be able to decide which server(s) users will reach based on their country/countries of origin, and you want to handle “fallback” scenarios in case one or more servers are not available.

GSLB.me georouting allows the creation of an unrestricted number of “routing rules” to achieve flexible, granular and precise DNS balancing and traffic distribution.

Georouting rules can be based on:

  • country of origin of the requesting DNS client
  • ASN (Autonomous System Number) of origin of the requesting DNS client
  • ISP (Internet Service Provider) of origin of the requesting DNS client

In the following configuration example we will assume:

  • the FQDN that will be resolved by clients worldwide is geo-name.myowndomain.com. This is your website/application host name.
  • we have three servers (targets) that run contents for geo-name.myowndomain.com, that is: you own three servers to support your applications/services/websites:
    • 1 Server in Australia, having IP 1.1.1.1
    • 1 Server in France, having IP 2.2.2.2
    • 1 Server in the USA, having IP 3.3.3.3
  • the following georouting rules need to be configured to implement such requirements. Please note that rules ordering is crucial to achieve the desired DNS balancing behaviour
    • clients coming from Brazil, Argentina, Peru and Chile will have to be sent to the US-based server (IP address 3.3.3.3). If the US-based server is down, then clients will be redirected to the French server (IP address 2.2.2.2)
    • clients coming fromVerizon UK shall be sent to the US-based server (IP address 3.3.3.3).
    • clients coming from either The United Kingdom or the USA will be sent to the Australian and French servers (IP addresses 1.1.1.1 and 2.2.2.2 respectively). Selecting either the Australian or the French server has to be done in round-robin. If both the Australian and the French server are down, clients will be redirected to the US-based server (IP address 3.3.3.3). Notice that due to the previous, ISP-based rule, users in the UK that connect through Verizon UK will get a 3.3.3.3 reply, whereas other UK-based users will get 1.1.1.1 and 2.2.2.2.
    • clients coming from ASN (Autonomous System Number) AS23564 shall be sent to the Australian server (IP address 1.1.1.1) with no fallback
    • clients originating from other countries will use either 1.1.1.1, 2.2.2.2 or 3.3.3.3 based on their vicinity (geographical proximity) to the three servers. This is a kind of fallback rule, to make sure that valid DNS replies are always sent back to requesting clients.

How to configure it:

Log on to GSLB.me using your credentials or register if you still don’t have an account

Screenshot-1

 If not already done, create an authoritative DNS zone: we will add a geohost to it later on. Georouting rules are applied to geohosts so in order to use georouting the minimum requirement is to set up a geohost: this howto shows the full picture, also including authoritative zone creation.

howto.georouting.1

Fill out domain name and contact e-mail address

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when done, click “Save” to save the newly created zone, which is then displayed on the left-hand side of the web interface.

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we now need to create the geohost where we will set up georouting. Right clicking on the zone name displays the menu where “Add Geohost” has to be clicked.

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In the geohost edit panel, fill out at least the geohost name and set the balancing algorithm to “Georouting” (the “Setup Georouting” button will be enabled automatically) and save the changes. This creates the geohost where georouting will be configured.

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The newly created geohost is now displayed in the main zones tree: the yellow star icon indicates that changes have been saved but are still not active, we will commit them later on.

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Geohost targets must be added now: each target is one of the servers that host the website/application that we want to access through georouting. Right click on the geohost name and select “Add Target” from the menu:

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The target edit panel required configuration of at least the target’s IP Address (or FQDN) and checks to determine whether the target is working as expected or if it’s down/unavailable. After setting paramters, click on save.

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The newly added target is then displayed in the main zones tree:

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Now repeat the steps to add a new target, in order to enter 2.2.2.2 and 3.3.3.3. When both are added, the main zones tree displays them with the relevant country flags showing their geographical location.

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Georouting rules can be configured now. Left click on the geohost name and then click the “Setup Georouting” button on the right.

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This opens the georouting configuration dashboard. The dashboard provides full control on rules based on client country, ASN and ISP.

By clicking on “Add country-based rule” we create the first rule we need:

screenshot9a

We need to type the rule descriptive name:

By clicking on “Create” the rule configuration panel is displayed.

The lower section of the dashboard is the rule panel: each rule can be customized by enabling/disabling it and four sections allow full configuration of the rule behaviour.

The “selected countries” section lists the countries that match this rule. The rule itself will be used whenever a DNS request comes from a client located in one of the “selected countries”.

GSLB.me will then check the targets configured in the “Primary targets” list: if available primary targets are found, they are used to build the DNS response. If the “Primary targets” list contains more than one target, the “Primary algorithm” will be used to decide which target(s) to use for the DNS reply.

The “Fallback targets”, if configured, defines the list of one of more targets that are used in case all primary targets are unavailable/marked “down”. The “Fallback algorithm” will be used to determine which fallback targets to use to build the DNS response.

Back to the configuration, from the “available countries” list at the top of the dashboard, one or more countries can be selected and added to the “selected countries” list by clicking the “+” button:

Selected countries are then added to the list of “Selected countries”.

This rule is valid and will be used for all client DNS requests coming from the selected countries. Now its primary targets must be defined: from the “Available targets” list select the primary targets that will clients coming from the specified countries (3.3.3.3 in our example) and click the “+” button in the “primary targets” section:

 

The selected target is moved from the “available targets” list to “primary targets”:

So far, the rule replies to all DNS requests from the selected countries with 3.3.3.3 In case 3.3.3.3 is unavailable, we want to fallback by returning IP address 2.2.2.2, so it must be added to the “Fallback targets” list. To do so, select 2.2.2.2 from the “Available targets” list and click the “+” button in the “Fallback targets” section:

The selected target is then moved to the “Fallback targets” list. Rule configuration is completed:

The second rule must match requests for DNS clients that connect from Verizon UK. An ISP-based rule need to be added by clicking on the “Add ISP-based rule” button:

The rule name must be typed:

 

The new ISP-based rule is then added and its configuration panel is displayed:

Verizon UK must be selected: type a search string in the “ISP search” box (ie. “verizon”, search is case insensitive). The list of Found ISP is updated. You might need to type more characters in case nothing is displayed in the “Found ISPs” list, the maximum number of displayed ISPs is set to 500 to keep the user interface tidy and fast.

 

Select “Verizon UK Limited” from the list of found ISPs and then click the “+” button in the rule configuration panel, to add the selected ISP to the list of those who will match the ISP-based rule:

In our example we want all DNS requests coming from Verizon UK go to 3.3.3.3: we need to select the target from the list of available targets, and then click “+” to add it. The target is then moved to the “Primary targets” list.

ISP rule configuration is complete. The next rule we need is the one matching requests coming from the UK and the USA. Click on “Add country-based rule” to add the new rule:

Type the rule descriptive name and click “Create”:

The rule configuration panel is displayed: select the countries you need to match and click on the “+” button to add them to the rule:

Requests coming from the UK and the USA will be replied with 1.1.1.1 and 2.2.2.2 using a round robin algorithm: select the two targets from the list of available ones and click the “+” button to add them to the list of primary targets.

We need to set up 3.3.3.3 as the fallback target: in case both primary targets are down, it will be used to reply to UK and USA clients. Click on the 3.3.3.3 target and on the “+” button to add it to the fallback targets list.

The next rule to be configured is ASN-based. We need all clients sending DNS requests from AS23564 to get 1.1.1.1 as a DNS response. Click on “Add AS-based rule” to create the new rule:

 

Type the rule descriptive name:

The ASN-based rule configuration panel is displayed:

 

AS23564 must be selected: type a search string in the “ASN search” box (ie. “AS2356, search is case insensitive). The list of Found ASN is updated. You might need to type more characters in case nothing is displayed in the “Found ASNs” list, the maximum number of displayed ASNs is set to 500 to keep the user interface tidy and fast.

 

Primary targets that will be used to reply DNS queries need to be selected: click on 1.1.1.1 in the “Available targets” list and then click the “+” button under the “Primary targets” list, to move the target to the list itself.

 

The last rule to be configured is the default one: it will match all remaining countries in order to return a DNS reply for all clients not matched by the previous georouting rules. The country “– Unknown countries” matches all requests that should come from IP addresses that for some reasons can’t be mapped to a specific country (ie. satellite providers, etc).. Add a country-based rule by clicking on the “Add country-based rule” button:

Type the rule descriptive name:

From the “Available countries” list select all countries: these are those that are not matched by previously configured per-country rules. When done, click on the “+” button in the rule configuration panel to add all selected countries to the rule itself.

 

Select all the three targets and add them to the list of primary targets by clicking on the “+” button. Click on the “Primary algorithm” and select “Proximity”. This way, the “Fallback” rule will reply DNS clients with the geographically closest available target.

 

Once all georouting rules are configured, we need to make sure they will be evaluated in the desired order. Rules ordering can be set up and modified using the “Georouting rules sorter” at the top right side. The “up” and “down” arrows can be used to sort enabled rules.

When rules have been sorted according to your needs, “Save all rules” must be clicked in order to permanently save changes. This step is mandatory.

After saving all rules, modifications must be committed to make them active: this is done by clicking the “Commit” button at the top of the screen.

Georouting configuration is complete. Don’t forget to commit all changes to make them active, by clicking on the “Commit” button displayed at the top of the screen.

The last needed step is authoritative DNS reconfiguration for the “myowndomain.com” domain: authoritative DNS must be set to ns1.gslb.me and ns2.gslb.me. This is of course needed only when DNS resolution for the domain is handled by GSLB.me. Your mileage may vary: you could also create a geohost using georouting and belonging to one of our “public” zones: gslb.biz, gslb.eu, gslb.info, gslb.mobi, gslb.us and gslb.ws and then simply configure a CNAME record in your own authoritative DNS zone in order to have DNS resolution handled by GSLB.me.

Enabling DNSSEC

Scenario:

You need to enable DNSSEC for one authoritative DNS zone you previously configured (please see the “Create an authoritative DNS zone” howto).

 

How to configure it:

Log on to GSLB.me using your credentials

metrics.1

From the main interface dashboard, click on the authoritative zone you want to enable DNSSEC for

 

The zone configuration dashboard is then displayed. By default DNSSEC is disabled: click on the “Enabled” switch button to turn it on:

After switching on the DNSSEC setting, a warning is displayed to remind you that you will have to send the DS record to your registrar, in order to establish the DNSSEC chain of trust.

After acknowledging the reminder, click on the “Save” button at the bottom of the page in order to save changes:

After saving changes, click on the “Show DS Record” button, to display the DS record that will have to be shared with your domain registrar:

The DS record for your DNSSEC-enabled domain is displayed. This will have to be shared with your domain registrar in order to complete DNSSEC configuration. Based on your preferred digest type you will be able to select one of the displayed DS records:

DNSSEC is now enabled, and will be used for all static and dynamic records, and for all geohosts belonging to the authoritative zone.

Configuring and using passive checks

Scenario:

You need to set up your smart DNS configuration so that the DNS resolution algorithm is driven by externally-fed performance/availability indicators.

In the following configuration example we will assume:

  • the FQDN that will be resolved by clients worldwide is mytest.gslb.eu. This is your website/application host name.
  • you have two servers (targets) that run contents for mytest.gslb.eu:
    • 1 server with IP address 8.8.8.8
    • 1 server with IP address 8.8.4.4
  • each server is considered available if its CPU load average is < 60% (this is handled by a passive check through metrics pushed to GSLB.me)

How to configure it:

Log on to GSLB.me using your credentials or register if you still don’t have an account

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From the main interface dashboard, select the “Metrics” icon to start configuring your custom metrics

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The metrics editor is displayed: here you can set up your metrics names, their type and description. After defining all the metrics you need you will be able to push them to GSLB.me. Free users can define an unlimited number of metrics but can only update one metric at a time per target. Two consecutive updates can be pushed to GSLB.me every 180 seconds. When buying and enabling “advanced metrics collection” for a geohost, an unlimited number of metrics can be pushed per target, with a minimum update interval of 30 seconds.

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Define the new metrics with the name “cpu_load”, setting type to “percentage” and type its description. When done, click on “Add metric” to create it. Metrics names are case sensitive.

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All defined metrics can be edited and deleted by using the table in the lower part of the screen.

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After defining the “cpu_load” metrics, click on the “checks” section in the left section of the screen, then right-click on “Custom [right click here to add more]”. From the menu then select “Passive“.

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The passive check configuration dashboard is displayed. Here you can type the check description and the expression to evaluate in order to determine the check status. Expressions can be fully customized: full instructions on the syntax to use can be found here

After typing the check description and the expression, click “Save“.

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The newly created check is now displayed in the “Checks” section on the left.

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Now click on the “Main” section and right-click the “gslb.eu” zone: from the menu that is displayed select “Add geohost“.

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In the geohost configuration panel type the geohost name and save by clicking the “Save” button.

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Now add the first target, by right-clicking the geohost name and by selecting “Add Target” from the menu.

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In the target configuration panel type the target IP address and select the “Check CPU load” check you defined previously. This tells GSLB.me to check the target availability using the passive check. Once done, click “Save“.

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The first target is then displayed in the relevant geohost (mytest.gslb.eu in this example).

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Right-click the geohost name and select “Add Target” again from the menu, to create the second target.

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In the target configuration panel type the target IP address and select the “Check CPU load” check you defined previously. This tells GSLB.me to check the target availability using the passive check. Once done, click “Save“.

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The new geohost now needs to be committed to make it active. You can do this by right-clicking the geohost name and selecting “Commit changes“.

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After committing the geohost, the “star” icon beside its name disappears. The geohost is now active.

Right-click the geohost name again and select “Show Status” from the menu.

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The self-refreshing geohost status window is displayed and both targets are marked “down” since the “Check CPU load” is telling GSLB.me that both targets are not available. When the “Check CPU load” check was defined, its expression was “output=cpu_load<60“, so each target will be marked as “up” only when the “cpu_load” metrics will be less than 60. No “cpu_load” metrics have been pushed to GSLB.me so far, hence the check is returning a “down” response.

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Now it’s time to push to GSLB.me the actual “cpu_load” readings from the two targets: this is accomplished through a simple REST service: “cpu_load” values are computed directly on your infrastructure/servers and can be pushed in a variety of ways, including simple “curl” commands, such as the following. Full instructions on how to use the metrics submission REST service can be found here.

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After submitting the “cpu_load” readings and based on the “check schedule” parameter defined for each target, GSLB.me will update targets status and start delivering service based on your metrics, algorithms and business logic.

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Geographical Proximity

Scenario:

  • You have at least two datacenters running the same application and both datacenters are simultaneously active (business continuity)
  • Your application is mapped on a well-defined hostname (ie. www.myapplication.com)
  • On the first datacenter www.myapplication.com is running on IP a.b.c.d. One the second datacenter www.myapplication.com is running on IP x.y.z.t
  • You need your clients traffic to be sent to the geographically closest datacenter

Solution:

  • Use GSLB.me in geographical balancing mode
  • Define one geohost that will be pointed by www.myapplication.com via a DNS CNAME record
  • Create two targets, one for each datacenter
  • Assign the relevant checks to each target
  • Configure the CNAME record on the primary DNS server that handles the domain myapplication.com

How to configure it:

  1. Register on GSLB.me and log on
  2. Select under which one of the available domains (gslb.us, gslb.info, …) you want to create your geohost. You can choose the domain you prefer, this is purely a “cosmetic” choice. Let’s choose mywebsite.gslb.eu
  3. Create your geohost: a geohost is the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) that your authoritative DNS will use as a CNAME for your application hostname (ie. www.myapplication.com). Select “Proximity” as your balancing algorithm. This will enable distribution of incoming traffic towards the datacenter which is closest to the client
  4. Define the first target: the target’s IP address is a.b.c.d
  5. Select checks to be performed on the first target
  6. Define the second target: the target’s IP address is x.y.z.t
  7. Select checks to be performed on the second target
  8. Configure your authoritative DNS to use a CNAME record to have www.myapplication.com point to mywebsite.gslb.eu
800true numbers under 600false false 800http://www.gslb.me/wp-content/plugins/thethe-image-slider/style/skins/frame-white
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    Slide1
    Go to http://go.gslb.me and logon. If you still don't have an account you can register and then logon.
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    Slide2
    Once logged in let's create a sample geohost named mywebsite.gslb.eu. We can choose any top level domain among those shown on the left hand side of the GSLB.me interface.
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    Slide3
    Let's right click on the domain we choose in order to create a new geohost.
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    Slide4
    Next, we need to configure the geohost name (it will be prepended to the zone name we selected in the previous step), set it to enable and select "Geographical" as the balancing algorithm. We can configure DNS replies TTL from here. When done, let's click on "Save" to save changes
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    Slide5
    After clicking on "Save" changes are committed and confirmation is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
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    Slide6
    After creating the geohost we need to add targets: a target is the IP address of our application at each datacenter we are going to load balance. Let's right click on the geohost name and add the target from the popup menu that appears.
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    Slide7
    Let's now configure the IP address of our target, which is the IP address our application runs on on the given datacenter. Checks schedule time can be set and the list of healthchecks to be performed is also configured here. Once done save the changes.
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    Slide8
    After clicking on "Save" changes are committed and confirmation is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
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    Slide9
    Now we need to add our second target. a target is the IP address of our application at each datacenter we are going to load balance. Let's right click on the geohost name and add the target from the popup menu that appears.
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    Slide10
    Let's now configure the IP address of our second target, which is the IP address our application runs on the given datacenter. Checks schedule time can be set and the list of healthchecks to be performed is also configured here. Once done let's save the changes.
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    Slide11
    After clicking on "Save" changes are committed and confirmation is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
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    Slide12
    Now we completed our geohost and targets configuration. We need to commit this setup to make it active. To do so let's right click on the geohost name on the left hand side of the screen and commit the changes. You can also commit pending changes clicking on the "Commit changes" button at the top of the screen.
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    Slide13
    After committing changes a confirmation popup is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
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    Slide14
    We can now open the map to display our targets' geographical position and availability. Right click on the geohost name and open the map.
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    Slide15
    The map shows our targets positions and current availability. It is automatically refreshed every 5 seconds.
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    Slide16
    We can now open the status window to see the status of all geohosts and their targets. Let's right click on the geohost name and open the window.
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    Slide17
    The status window shows the health of our geohosts and targets. It is automatically refreshed every 5 seconds.
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    Slide18
    Right click on the geohost name again to show the DNS entry we need to add to our authoritative DNS for the "myapplication.com" domain in this example.
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    Slide19
    In our example we will need to add to the "myapplication.com" DNS zone the entry "www.myapplication.com. 600 IN CNAME mywebsite.gslb.eu". This enables GSLB.me-based load balancing for your www.myapplication.com fully qualified domain name.
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Using aliases for datacenter dependencies

Scenario:

  • You have at least two datacenters running the same application and both datacenters are simultaneously active (business continuity)
  • Your application is mapped on a well-defined hostname (ie. www.myapplication.com)
  • On the first datacenter www.myapplication.com is running on IP a.b.c.d. One the second datacenter www.myapplication.com is running on IP x.y.z.t
  • You need to monitor your application health using IP addresses that are different from a.b.c.d and x.y.z.t

Solution:

  • Use GSLB.me in round robin balancing mode
  • Define one geohost that will be pointed by www.myapplication.com via a DNS CNAME record
  • Create two targets, one for each datacenter and define their aliases. Targets will be healthcheck-monitored using their IP addresses but GSLB.me will resolve the geohost name using the aliases.
  • Assign the relevant checks to each target
  • Configure the CNAME record on the primary DNS server that handles the domain myapplication.com

How to configure it:

  1. Register on GSLB.me and log on
  2. Select under which one of the available domains (gslb.us, gslb.info, …) you want to create your geohost. You can choose the domain you prefer, this is purely a “cosmetic” choice. Let’s choose mywebsite.gslb.eu
  3. Create your geohost: a geohost is the FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) that your authoritative DNS will use as a CNAME for your application hostname (ie. www.myapplication.com). Select “Round robin” as your balancing algorithm. This will enable active-active distribution of incoming traffic towards your datacenters
  4. Define the first target: the target’s IP address is a.b.c.d and we are setting its alias IP address
  5. Select checks to be performed on the first target
  6. Define the second target: the target’s IP address is x.y.z.t and we are setting its alias IP address
  7. Select checks to be performed on the second target
  8. Configure your authoritative DNS to use a CNAME record to have www.myapplication.com point to mywebsite.gslb.eu
800true numbers under 600false false 800http://www.gslb.me/wp-content/plugins/thethe-image-slider/style/skins/frame-white
  • 5000 slideright true 60 bottom 30
    Slide1
    Go to http://go.gslb.me and logon. If you still don't have an account you can register and then logon.
  • 5000 slideright true 60 bottom 30
    Slide2
    Once logged in, let's create a sample geohost named mywebsite.gslb.eu. We can choose any top level domain among those shown on the left hand side of the GSLB.me interface.
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    Slide3
    Let's right click on the domain we choose in order to create a new geohost.
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    Slide4
    Next, we need to configure the geohost name (it will be prepended to the zone we selected in the previous step), set it to enable and select your balancing algorithm. We can configure DNS replies and TTL from here. When done, let's click on "Save" to save changes
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    Slide5
    After clicking on "Save" changes are committed and confirmation is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
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    Slide6
    After creating the geohost, we need to add targets: a target is the IP address of our application at each datacenter we are going to load balance. Let's right click on the geohost name and add the target from the popup menu that appears.
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    Slide7
    Let's now configure the IP address of our target, which is the IP address our application runs on the given datacenter. The alias IP address can be set here. This will enable GSLB.me to perform health-check monitoring using the target IP address and resolving DNS queries using the alias IP address. Checks schedule time can be set and the list of healthchecks to be performed is also configured here. Once done let's save the changes.
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    Slide8
    After clicking on "Save" changes are committed and confirmation is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
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    Slide9
    Let's now create our second geohost.
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    Slide10
    Let's now configure the IP address of our second target, which is the IP address our application runs on on the given datacenter. The alias IP address can be set here. This will enable GSLB.me to perform health-check monitoring using the target IP address and resolving DNS queries using the alias IP address. Checks schedule time can be set and the list of healthchecks to be performed is also config
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    Slide11
    After clicking on "Save" changes are committed and confirmation is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
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    Slide12
    Now we completed our geohost and targets configuration. We need to commit this setup to make it active. To do so, let's right click on the geohost name on the left hand side of the screen and commit the changes.
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    Slide13
    After committing changes a confirmation popup is displayed at the bottom of the screen.
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    Slide14
    We can now open the map to display our targets' geographical position and availability. Let's right click on the geohost name and open the map.
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    Slide15
    The map shows our targets positions and current availability. It is automatically refreshed every 5 seconds.
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    Slide16
    We can now open the status window to see the status of all geohosts and their targets. Let's right click on the geohost name and open the window.
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    Slide17
    The status window shows the health of our geohosts and targets. It is automatically refreshed every 5 seconds.
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    Slide18
    Let's now right click on the geohost name again to show the DNS entry we need to add to our authoritative DNS for the "myapplication.com" domain in this example.
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    Slide19
    In our example we will need to add to the "myapplication.com" DNS zone the entry "www.myapplication.com. 600 IN CNAME mywebsite.gslb.eu". This enables GSLB.me-based load balancing for your www.myapplication.com fully qualified domain name.
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7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
^